Car Seat Questions Board FAQ

For easier viewing, most of this information is in links. Please click on the links… you’ll get a lot more info that way!

What do those letters stand for? Common Car Seat Abbreviations

What is that? What does that mean? Glossary, Carseatblog Glossary

Why shouldn’t I use a snow suit, bulky clothing, bundle-me, etc. in the car? What should I use instead? BBC Bundle-me ThreadWarm and Safe

Can I use anything to protect my vehicle seat? Updated Car Seat Protector Post

For the lastest info, reviews, etc. check out CarSeatBlog!

4 Steps for Kids Handout – a great basic CPS handout.

What are the laws in my state? Keep in mind that if you follow best practice, you’ll always be meeting or surpassing the safety laws. Also, some states have proper use clauses that basically prohibit misuse seats without explicitly stating when to RF, FF, booster, etc. Finally, many laws vary in fines, enforcement, exceptions, etc. which may not be listed on these sites. IIHS Law Map and List  AAA/CAA Law List

How long should my child be rear facing? You should keep your child rear facing as long as possible, to the limits of a rear facing convertible car seat. The AAP recommends rear facing to the limits of your car seat, until at least 2 years of age or longer. NHTSA recommends rear facing as long as possible for children 1-3 years old. The CDC recommends children rear face until at least 2 years of age as well. Several states now require rear facing until 2 years of age and several seats have a 2 year minimum for forward facing (so with those seats in a “proper use” state, the child must be 2 years old to use the seat forward facing). Barring very extenuating circumstances, a child should be able to rear face until at least 2 years old and 30+#, and there should be no circumstance where a child under 1 year of age or under 20# is forward facing.

When is my child’s infant seat outgrown? When is my child’s rear facing convertible outgrown?

More info on why rear facing is so important:

*AAP Guidelines and Policy and Technical Report

*NHTSA’s guidelines

*CarSeatBlog RF Link Guide

*MSN Article, Article, The Car Seat Lady Article, BBC Article, European Article

*Joel’s Journey

*A child’s developing spine

*Video #1, Video #2

*Crash Test #1, Crash Test #2


*Norwegian Video

How do I make my RF convertible more upright? (Scroll down the thread or check out the pics in our Picture Club.)

*TheUltimate RearFacing Convertible Carseat Space Comparison from!

How long should my child be in a harness? When can I move my child to a booster? 4 years old and about 40# is the minimum for moving from a harnessed seat to a belt positioning booster. Before 4 years old, a child should be harnessed as children that young are neither physically nor behaviorally mature enough for a booster. From about 4-6 years of age, moving from a harness to a booster becomes individual to the child’s size and maturity, although most children are not mature enough to sit properly until 5-6 years of age. After age 6, most children are ready for a booster even if they’re a little less than 40# (as long as they meet the seat’s minimums). If a child is within the age, size, and maturity range to where both a harness and a booster are appropriate options, there is not enough evidence to say one is safer than the other; in such cases both are safe options. The AAP now recommends children use a harnessed seat from age 2 until at least 4 years of age. NHTSA recommends children ages 4-7 ride in a harnessed seat until they outgrow it (so a child should not be in a booster before age 4). The CDC recommends children be harnessed until they are at least 5 years old. 

When is my child’s forward facing harnessed seat outgrown?

More info on harness vs booster for a 4-6 year old child:

*In order for a booster to be used safely, the child must sit properly at all times. The shoulder belt must remain on the shoulder to keep the child’s upper body contained, and the lap belt needs to stay low on the child’s lap in order to prevent abdominal and spinal injuries. If a child cannot maintain proper position in a booster, the adult may find herself constantly reminding the child to sit still. This is frustrating for both the child and the parent. Putting a wiggly or impulsive child in a booster means you’re taking safety out of the parents’ hands and placing it in the hands of a child who’s too immature to handle such responsibility.

*A 5 point harness spreads crash forces over larger areas and provides more points of restraint than a 3 point lap/shoulder belt (a 2 point lap only belt should never be used for anything other than harnessed restraint installation). Because of this a harness is more likely to keep a child contained in and protected by the seat in a side impact or rollover.

*A 5 point harness is also better for children who sleep in the car as it provides greater support and maintains the child in proper position.

*In 3-across situations a harnessed seat is generally easier to buckle than a booster.

*Children who might have lived if they had been harnessed rather than boostered: Kyle David Miller, Isabelle Broadhead

*While there is a not enough evidence to say that a harness is safer than a booster for children who meet the age, size, and maturity requirements for a booster, there is also not enough evidence to say that harnessing is less safe than boostering. For a child who meets the requirements for both a harness and a booster, both a harness and a booster are safe choices.

*There have been reports of belts failing to lock and/or retract securely with lighter children (less than 40-50#). If possible, it may be a good idea to keep a child harnessed until they weigh 40-50#.

How long should my child ride in a high backed booster? How long should my child ride in a booster altogether? When can my child move from a booster to just the seat belt? How long should my child sit in the back seat? Ideally, children should use a high backed booster until the back portion no longer fits properly. High backed booster provide increased support for younger or smaller booster rides as well as better shoulder belt fit and enhanced side impact protection. Children should ride in a booster (high backed or backless) until the 5 Step Test is passed. This may be different from vehicle to vehicle and even from one seating position to another within the same vehicle. (You have to test in each vehicle and seating position, and your child may need a booster in one vehicle or seating position and not another.) For prepubescent children, there may be some benefit to staying in a booster until the fit is better without the booster than with it. Children generally do not pass the 5 step test until they are at least 4’9″ tall and 8-12 years old. The AAP recommends children use a booster until the seat belt fits properly, they are 4’9″ tall, and they are 8-12 years old. NHTSA recommends children ages 8-12 use a booster until they fit the seat belt properly without one. (In other words, a child under 8 should not ride without a booster.)

Children should ride in the back seat until they are 13 years old or older. For children and young adults (and adults up until old age) the back seat is safer than the front seat. There is evidence that children should be seated in the back seat until they are learning how to drive (generally 15-16 years old). Even when matched for size (height and weight), older teens and young adults have lower rates of injury and death than younger teens and tweens when seated in the front. In other words, your “adult sized” child still has a child’s musculoskeletal system and will not tolerate crash forces as well as an adult’s. The AAP and NHTSA both recommend children sit in the back seat until age 13.

What features should I look for in a seat? Why do you recommend certain seats over others? Features to look for in each stage of car seat. Make sure to look past any marketing and select a seat that will fit your child, your vehicle, and your budget which you can use and install correctly every time. Why the 3in1/Alpha Omega type seats may not be the first, last, and only seat.

Car seat measurements – Keep in mind measurements may vary based on who is measuring. The recline of the seat, how the child sits in the seat, etc. may affect functional internal dimensions, and how a seat installs or fits in a vehicle may affect functional outer dimensions as well as puzzling with other seats.

What seats do you recommend? Click on each category’s link for more info on the individual seats.

Infant Seats (CLICK HERE for more info on these and other infant seats as well as best seats for budget, space, preemies, etc.)

Britax B-Safe 35 / 35 Elite or Bob B-Safe 35

Chicco Keyfit/KeyFit 30

Combi Shuttle

Cybex Aton/Aton 2/Aton Q/ Cloud Q 

Evenflo Embrace 35 

Evenflo Platinum LiteMax 35

GB Asana35

Graco SnugRide Click Connect 30/30LX/35/35LX  

Graco SnugRide Click Connect 40

Hauck PROsafe35 / iCoo Baby IGuard35 

Maxi Cosi Mico Max 30 

Mountain Buggy Protect / Phil & Teds Alpha

Nuna PIPA 

Peg Perego Primo Viaggio 4-35

Recaro Performance Coupe 

Safety 1st OnBoard35/Eddie Bauer Sure Fit

Safety 1st OnBoard 35 LT 

Uppa Baby Mesa

Urbini Petal

Convertible Seats (CLICK HERE for more info on these and other convertible seats as well as best seats for budget, space, skipping infant seat, etc.)

Britax Marathon /Boulevard  

Britax Marathon Clicktight, Boulevard Clicktight, Boulevard Clicktight ARB, Advocate Clicktight, Advocate Clicktight ARB 

 Chicco NextFit/NextFit CX/NextFit Zip/NextFit Zip Air 

Clek Fllo/Foonf 

Diono Olympia, Pacifica, and Rainier 

Diono Radian R100/R120/RXT

Evenflo SureRide/Titan 65 

Graco Extend2Fit/Extend2Fit 3 in 1 

Graco Milestone/4Ever/Slim Fit 

Graco MySize /Size4Me /Head Wise /Fit4Me/Contender

Maxi Cosi Vello 70/Pria 70/Pria 70 with Tiny Fit/Pria 85 

Peg Perego Primo Viaggio SIP Convertible 


Safety 1st Advance SE 65 Air+/Advance EX 65 Air+ 

Safety 1st Complete Air

Safety 1st Grow And Go/Grow And Go Air/Grow And Go EX Air  

Safety 1st UltraMax Air 360

Potentially Nuna Rava 


Forward Facing Only Seats (CLICK HERE for more info on these seats and other forward facing seats as well as best seats for budget, space, etc.)

Britax Frontier 90/Pinnacle 90

Britax Pioneer 70

Evenflo Maestro

Evenflo SecureKid 300/SecureKid 400/Snugli Booster Car Seat

Graco Argos 70/Argos Elite

Graco Nautilus/Nautilus with Safety Surround

Harmony Defender 360/Secure Commander

Recaro Performance Sport

Booster Seats (CLICK HERE for more info on these and other boosters as well as best seats for budget, space, etc.)

The most important thing with boosters is proper belt fit. The following ratings are based on IIHS’s testing of boosters to determine which are more likely to fit kids well in most vehicles. It is important to ensure your child fits properly in whatever booster you chose. The shoulder belt should cross the chest between the neck and shoulder (not near the edge of the shoulder/arm), the lap belt show lie low on the thighs (not up on the abdomen), and the belt should have good contact at the thighs and shoulder.

High Backed Boosters (provide more support and side impact protection, better for younger, smaller, or less mature booster riders)

“Best Bets”

Britax Parkway SG 2013

Britax Parkway SGL 2013

Clek Oobr

Cosco Pronto

Cybex Solution X-Fix /QFix

Diono Cambria

Evenflo RightFit  

Graco Affix/Affix with Safety Surround

Graco Turbobooster/Turbobooster with Safety Surround

Harmony Dream Time

Harmony V6 Highback

Kiddy CruiserFix Pro

Maxi-Cosi Rodi XR

Maxi-Cosi RodiFix 

Recaro Performance Booster

Safety 1st Boost Air

“Good Bets”

Combi Kobuk Air Thru

Backless Boosters (provide less support and side impact protection, should generally only be used for older, larger, more mature booster riders)

“Best Bets”


Evenflo Big Kid Amp

Graco Connext

Graco Turbobooster Backless

Harmony Cruz

Harmony Olympian

Harmony Transit Deluxe 

Harmony Youth

Safety 1st Boostapak 

When is my child’s seat outgrown? When can my child move up to the “next step”? How to tell when your child is ready for a new seat or the next step in car seats.

CDC Growth Charts – For estimating age for weight, age for height, or height for weight based on percentiles

How do I measure the 1″ rule for outgrowing a rear facing seat?

What is LATCH? Am I using it correctly? LATCH info and common LATCH mistakes

How do I tether my car seat rear facing? RF tethering of Britax and SKJP/Diono convertibles and the Combi Coccoro (No other seats other than these allow RF tethering. Secure and/or stow the tether if you will not be using it.)

My car seat was in a crash. Do I need to replace it? Manufacturer and NHTSA guidelines for reuse/replacement after a crash.

How do I become a CPST? Info on finding and attending a CPST course.

Common Britax Questions


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